Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Pouring Concrete

It's only fitting to have a post on the last day of 2013 in a year of infrequent posting.

Today concrete was finally flowing and progress is slowly ramping up as we get past the holidays that have slowed us getting out of the ground. Footers were poured today which will now allow the forming of foundation walls to begin on Thursday. Our next pour is scheduled for this coming Monday.

Today's Action

Monday, December 16, 2013

Demo

Talk about stress relief, nothing is better than smashing stuff up to blow off some steam.

My staff was truly disappointed when they learned we would not be demoing the 5 out buildings at our facility. Some things are better left to the professional destroyers.  These guys have made pretty quick work of removing the old buildings and done it an organized surgical like manor.

The building materials are being separated in to three categories; wood, steel and concrete.  All three components are being recycled individually to minimize any waste materials ending up in landfills.  






 
Here is a video that shows the precision of the material separation.



Thursday, December 5, 2013

Maintenance Facility Improvements

It has been a long six months since my last posting and there is no better time to catch up when the outside temperature is 3 degrees.

For more than 2 1/2 years we have been working towards major Maintenance Facility improvements and today we have finally received our building permit. The process included numerous meetings with County Officials, Fire Marshals, Architects, Contractors, Neighbors  and more than twenty building design iterations before coming up with one that will work for everybody.

Every step of the way we seemed to run into a new challenge in the process, many were anticipated and several were not.  After this long process I am looking forward to finally after 18 years of working out of a dirt/mud parking lot having a quality facility to protect the substantial investment of our equipment fleet.

Currently we have only 6000 sqft of enclosed building space, this also includes office and equipment repair areas that cuts into the overall square footage.  The new building will be and additional 8000 sqft that will allow us to get our entire fleet inside and out of the elements. With more than $1.5 Million dollars invested in our equipment fleet this new building will go along way to maximize the life of our equipment.

Throughout the construction process I will once again post regularly with progress, here's to normal weather conditions over the next several months.

Below are some current pictures that show our yard area that most of the equipment sits outside and the renderings of what will be.








Thursday, May 2, 2013

Aerification Post Mortem



Aerification is always a difficult process to go through without something major going wrong mechanically or weather related. This year we had both come into play with the weather being the major disrupting factor.  Normally we are able to complete aerification in three long days of the  greens, tees, approaches and fairways.

Below I will layout out our Spring 2013 three day timeline of aerification.

April 8th
Verti-Drain Greens 1-12
Aerify Fairways 1-6
Graden Tees/Approaches 1-11
Topdress/Seed Fairways 1-5
April 9th
Verti-Drain Greens 13-18
Aerify Fairways 7-15
Graden Tees/ Approaches 12-18
Topdress/Seed Fairways 6-13
April 10th
Aerify Fairways 16-18
Topdress/Seed Fairways 14-18
Topdress/Seed all Tees/ Approaches

Below this is the timeline of how Spring 2013 aerification actually played out.

April 8th
Verti-Drain Greens 1-8
Aerify Fairways 1-6
Graden Tees/Approaches 1-11
Topdress/Seed Fairways 1-4

April 9-10th
Snow on the ground
April 11th (still snow on the ground)
Verti-Drain Greens 9-16
Graden Tees/Approaches 12-18
April  12th
Verti-Drain Greens 17-18
April 15th (snow starts mid day)
Aerify Fairways 7-11
April 16-18th
Snow on the ground
April 21st
Aerify Fairways 13-15
April 22nd (snow starts mid day)
Aerify Fairways 16-18
Topdress/Seed Fairways 8,10,11&13
April 23-24th
Snow on the Ground
April 29th
Topdress/Seed Fairways 7,15,16&18
Topdress/ seed all Tees & Approaches
Final cleanup



Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Winter Injury Guide


I have put together a quick little guide book for our membership to understand some of the winter turf injury sustained on the golf course this season.  Some of the injury is intentional, some is desired and some is not. Either way the guide shows in basic terms what each injury looks like and the cause of it.  Sometimes  Mother Nature provides the best selective herbicide on the market. 

Winter Injury Guide

Crown Hydration:  Occurs when large amounts of surface water from snow melt turns into ice crystals outside the plant cell (extracellular) of the Turfgrass crown tissue. As these ice crystals form and enlarge, they pull water out of the cell, which will result in dehydration. At some point a dehydrated cell and cell membrane stop functioning and the result is cell death. Many times superficial damage occurs but If enough of the cells in the crown of the plant die, the entire Turfgrass plant will die as a result.


Figure 1 Hole #5 1st Fairway Under Trees

Figure 2  Hole #6 Fairway and Rough Sheet Water Flow Areas

Desiccation: Winter desiccation is the death of leaves or plants by drying during winter when the plant is either dormant or semi-dormant. Desiccation injury is usually greatest on exposed or elevated sites and areas where surface runoff is great. Tree root completion for water also affects the quality of the Turfgrass.


Figure 3 Hole #7 Exposed South Facing Mounds
                                                                   

Figure 4 Hole #4 Tree Root Competition For Water

Selective Herbicide Kill: Selective herbicides kill specific targets, while leaving the desired turf species relatively unharmed. We are using both older and newer chemistries to control Poa Annua in our key playing areas.
Figure 5 Hole #7 Fairway Poa Kill

Figure 6 North Chipping Green PoaCure Trials

Monday, March 25, 2013

100,000

It is crazy to think I started this blog 5 years ago with the intention of using it to better inform my membership of the things taking place on the golf course. This blog has grown from a local target audience to something that has reached more than a 140 countries world wide.

Reaching a 100,000 pages views is mind boggling especially given where all the views have come from.  This world wide exposure has allowed meet and interact with some great people sharing stories and ideas.

Hopefully I can continiue to produce content that keeps you wanting to visit, but this gets harder with each passing day.  Last year I started using Twitter for more real time and quick hitting items but still plan on using the blog for more detailed descriptions of relevant topics. Looking forward to the next 100,000!! 

Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Same Time Different Year

What a difference a year makes is a common theme many Golf Course Superintendents are saying. First off it's true the weather could not be more different this spring from last year. By this time last year we had mowed greens several times, aerified all of my fairways and we had nearly 350 rounds of golf. This year we are O for three on these items and with the long range forecast looking sketchy, it's hard to say when things will starting acting like Spring around here.

 The funny thing is that weather pattern we are currently experiencing is more normal than not, over the last several seasons we have been treated to extremely warm early spring temperatures. Those temperatures were great to get things going, but then the inevitable hard freeze would hit putting the brakes on active growth. The turf may have been green but it wasn't happy or growing for a while after that. This year is shaping up to be a slow start of the season with soil temperatures being 5 to 10 degrees cooler than this time a year ago. We as Superintendent's routinely try to manipulate Mother Nature, some times with success and sometimes with disaterious results. The key is knowing when to push things and  knowing when to back off, it's a fine line that is walked at all golf courses that deal with seasonal Turfgrass.

Knowing that the Masters is coming in a few weeks and all that comes with the green is good mentality might tempt you to make a poor agronomic decision based on color alone. Don't do it, exercise patience within reason and remember this is a marathon not a sprint.

Thursday, December 20, 2012

The Diversion

Ever since the bunker renovation took place on the golf course back in 2007 we have fought washout issues with some of the flashed sand faces.  This was to be expected and construction materials such as Geo textile  liners were utilized to help reduce the washouts, which they did for the most part.

Our most problematic bunker on the course from a washout standpoint was the left hand fairway bunker on the 18th hole.  We knew durring construction this we be an issue and did all we could given our financial limitations at the time to divert water flow.  What was done was not nearly enough and with recent talk about eliminating this bunker because of the labor drain to maintain it, we jumped into action.

 In my opinion this is a critical bunker that defines the tee shot on the closing hole and without it a key architectural and strategic element would be lost. 

During the renovation work we took great care to tie our re-grading into the existing contours and make the work appear to have never happened.  This was a challenge due to the fact we brought in nearly 200 yards of soil for this bunker alone. The end result is one that beefed up the bunker faces and a creation of a mound and swale to divert surface sheet flow of water around the bunker and not through it.

This bunker now has both form and function from an agronomic and architectural point and maybe instilling a little fear in the golfer as this being something avoided at all cost.

The Problem

The Result of Sheet Flow
The Solution Before/After

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Fall Projects

It is amazing how quickly time has gone by since my last post.  We have been extremely busy the last two months taking full advantage of the extended fall weather completing numerous construction/renovation projects.

Immediately after aerification was completed in early October we have been in full renovation mode working on drainage improvements, bunker and tee renovations and a major landscape enhancement at the restroom on hole #4.

The work this fall alone we have completely renovated in house a total of 9 tees and 6 bunkers.  Although we have done a lot we still have a long way to go to complete the long term renovations in these areas.  We have a total of 82 tees of which all need varying degrees of work ranging from leveling, drainage,irrigation, new rootzone mix, tee expansion and re-grassing. This fall we have started with the most problematic and heavily used tees so that an immediate impact is made for next spring. As time goes on we will work through all of them in order of usage by both the men and women until all of them have been re worked.
New Rootzone Mix Being Installed

Final Prep Before Sod
After Sod Installation
Old Rootzone Mix Removal
Final Grade Before Sod
Sod Going Down
After Sod Installation
A similar process is being followed in regards to the bunker renovations taking place on the course.  We are identifying the most problematic bunkers from the greens out completing these before moving on to fairway bunkers. In 2007 we had a major bunker renovation of all 50 bunkers that allowed us three plus years of great sand quality and conditions. Unfortunately in the last two years in particular we have experienced numerous significant rain events that has repeatedly washed out and contaminated the bunker sand and drainage systems. With the work that was started in the spring of the year we now have renovated a total of 16 bunker and are on are way.  The renovation of each bunker includes; removal of the old contaminated sand and drainage followed by Klingstone liner being applied and new drainage and sand installed.    
Washed Out Sand Contaminated With Silt
New Drainage Trenches
Klingstone Being Applied
Final Product
One of the other projects that was recently completed was the landscape renovations at the restroom on the fourth hole.  This was previously a native grass area that always looked worn and had a negative aesthetic appeal. This newly landscaped area will serve two purposes now the first is a major aesthetic improvement with the incorporation of trees, shrubs and perennial flowers. The second function this landscaping will provide is some much needed screening from the development road that is directly adjacent to it.

Newly Installed Plant Material
This renovation work should greatly enhance your overall golf experience come spring time and if the weather cooperates there will be several other surprises waiting for you when you return next year.


Friday, October 5, 2012

Tee Work

Now that aerification has been completed and the mowing of the golf course is slowing down we have begun some of our fall projects.

We will be working on several things such as drainage, irrigation expansion, Sodding, bunker renovations and tee leveling. Most of our seasonal staff will only be here for a few more weeks so we will be working as quickly as possible on the large list of things to get done before the weather changes.

The tee leveling will be one of the first things we get started with since they are the most time sensitive items. We need to have the new sod installed within the next two weeks to give the sod a chance to become established before the long winter sets in. The tees we will be focusing on are the 5 pine on #2, The upper 2 pine on #4 and the 2 pine on #9. These three are the worst of the worst and this creates a great starting point for us moving forward.
Sod Being Removed from #2 5 Pine

Ready For Regrading On #9 2 Pine
During construction these tees will be out of play and the tee markers will be placed on nearby tees of similar yardage.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

The Journey of a Grow In

For anyone who has grown in anything on a golf course or anywhere for that matter goes through a wide range of emotions through the process.  Like many things in life there are ups and downs along the way that help shape the journey.

In the beginning there is a tremendous amount of excitement and anxiety all rolled into one knowing that the success or failure  lies squarely on no one else's shoulders.  The excitement of what could and will be is the motivating factor from day one up until the completion of the grow in.  The excitement of seeing your first germination as predicted based on environmental conditions and years of agronomic experience. The pride that you feel when your protocols are producing exceptional results.   The impatience you feel when the seedlings are not growing fast enough.  The doubt  you feel when things don't  respond in the manor  you wish. The worry you feel when you push too hard and it causes a step backwards. The relief you feel when things get back on track and once again. The amazement  you feel  when literally watching the grass grow before your eyes as if it were a time lapse. In the end  the satisfaction of knowing that you created something that will be enjoyed by many people.

These are just some of the emotions you will go through during the growing process, some days you just might even experience them all in one day I know I have.

A Look At The 4 Week Old Turf

Receiving a Little Personal Attention

Friday, August 31, 2012

A Look At Our Operation

A couple of weeks ago we shot a video that is being done for the club's website that shows my staff in action as well as explaining our current green renovation project.

This video gives great information about our operation in addition to explaining the detailed steps involved in the renovation process of the putting green. These steps are explained and also insight is given as to why we are trying to eliminate Poa Annua from our greens. 

 The company that is doing our video production is called Oswego Creative and they do great work check them out Here

Thursday, August 23, 2012

The Seed Is Down

Tuesday Afternoon we were able to get the putting green seeded after a long process of rootzone preparation. Numerous soil amendments and pre-plant fertilizers were incorporated into the rootzone mix prior to any seed going down.

The green was seeded with T-1 Bentgrass  and if all goes according to plan and the weather cooperates we should see germination in five days.

T-1 Being Seeded

First Watering Of New Seed

Monday, August 20, 2012

Breaking The Cycle

Over the years we have had many construction and or renovation projects on the golf course and the one thing we have always been short on was time.  In the past things have always been forced into a small time frame that best meets the needs for the course to be playable at all times. We are an extremely busy private Country Club that does more rounds in a year than some of our surrounding public golf courses. This high demand for golf has pushed us into a corner in some of our past projects that did not turn out as well as they should have.

This cycle is now being broken and the culture of the club needs to follow as well.  With our latest project of re-grassing the putting green we are approaching this with a much different view than before.  We will be doing things on a time schedule that best fits the agronomic health of the turf, not a golf schedule of events to be ready for.

This can be best described by what is taking place with the fumigation process at the putting green. The normal fumigation timeline takes between 7-10 days to complete based on soil temperatures. After closely monitoring the soil temperatures we could have ended the fumigation on the seventh day, but I decided with everything that is at stake with the success of this project the fumigation was allowed to go for another day and a half.  This decision was based on what will allow us to have the most success with this project moving forward. If it means extending the fumigation timeline and delaying the eventual re-seeding of the putting green than so be it. We all want this re-grassing to be a success, so why should we not set ourself up for success rather than failure.

Today wewill begin the re-grading of the green in preparation of the seeding process. We will be using the pea gravel layer below the mix as our guide for the final grade above.  If all goes according to plan we should be able to have the green with a final grade on it by tomorrow and seed will be sown immediately following.

The weather forecast looks good for at least the next week, so germination should be achieved beginning five days from planting. Exciting times are just ahead of us, I hope you enjoy watching the grass grow as much as I will.






Monday, August 13, 2012

A Mulligan

We are now in the final stretch of the fumigation process on the practice putting green. Last week we began the renovation of the putting green as another piece of the puzzle to move down the road of re-grassing all of the greens on the golf course.

The renovation of the green occurs in a multi step process that each has to occur in a specific order in to achieve the desired goal. Right now it appears that with all of the water running on the green that we have already seeded the green and are on our way back. This is not the case, we are actually using the water as a part of the fumigation process. The water helps trap the fumigant in the sand by acting as a seal on the surface thereby allowing the weed seeds to be successfully killed off in the rootzone mix. This process last between 7 to 10 days depending on the soil temperatures. After that has occurred the gas needs to blow off for a couple days before it is safe to re-seed the green. It is in this time that we will be working on the final surface grading and prep before we can seed the new T-1 Bentgrass.

Currently I am anticipating new seed going down on Friday the 17th weather and final grading dependent. Below are a few photos that show the highlights of the renovation process.

Sod Cutting Of The Green

Removal Of Sod
Tilling The Rootzone
Applying The Fumigant

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Connect The Dots

Some of you might have noticed the white dots that are located around the putting green and are wondering what they are. These dots are identifying the original edge of the putting green that has shrunk in over time. Beginning next Monday August 6th we will be renovating the putting green and begin a re-grassing protocol. This will be identical to what was done to the north chipping green last summer with exceptional results. The point of this renovation is to eliminate the Poa Annua from the green and establish a pure Bentgrass putting surface that will provide an example of what we can have in the future. The green will be closed for the remainder of the season to allow for a re-establishment from seed using a new "super" Bentgrass called T-1. This new variety has a tremendous density which naturally keeps out Poa in addition to providing a consistently smooth fast putting surface. During the time that the putting green is being renovated the north chipping green will become the temporary practice putting green. This will give you a chance to begin to see and feel how this new grass performs. I will be documenting this renovation process here, so check back in frequently to watch the new green come back to life.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Laying The Ground Work



Last week we had a site visit from the USGA Northwest Region Agronomist Derf Soller. This visit was attended by several Green Committee and Board Members  and served as a great informational gathering golf course tour.

The objective of this visit was to evaluate the overall condition of the golf course and our greens specifically  and to help with  future re-grassing protocols.  We are currently looking at re-grassing greens on the entire golf course at some point in the future.

Based off the success we had last season with a test green found at the practice facility we will once again be doing another green at the practice facility.  Starting August 6th we will be closing the putting green and begin a renovation and re-grassing of this green. 

Check out this post from last year showing the growing in process of the North Chipping Green. Click Here

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Moisture Meters

As always PACE Turf has great informational videos about things that take place in golf course maintenance that most players don't even realize.

We have been using the Turf Guard meters here at CCCP for the for the last four years and this season we have added the TDR300 meters to our tool belt. All I can say is that anyone who does not embrace this technology is missing the boat. Check out the video below that explains the different types of meters and the data that is collected from them.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Beware In Colorado

On the heals of my previous post about treating Poa Annua comes a turn of events.  If you are brave enough to apply Xonerate be sure to read the product label not once, not twice or even a third time of which might not be enough to truly understand the product being applied.  I have found it's what is not on the label that can give the best advice on how to use a product properly.  Unfortunately this knowledge comes with a price.  It seems as this information is only available after the fact of injury occurring to the desired plant species which in our case was  Bentgrass. This information was given to me more 30 days after the product was registered for use in Colorado and the application protocol had apparently changed.  Far too late for me or anyone who had applied the product per label instructions.

In my opinion Arysta LifeScience the producers of Xonerate herbicide was only concerned with getting the product to market without thoroughly testing it in all markets before release.  The latest and greatest Poa control product can yield a fortune in revenue coming back into the company that can expedite the return on investment.  This was clearly the case in Colorado.  In the last week I have received several phone calls from fellow Superintendents in Colorado who are experiencing the same if not worse injury to Bentgrass. To make matters worse the product Xonerate had little or no control on the Poa Annua which it is supposedly works so well on.  Most of my Poa that was treated couldn't look healthier, while the amount damage that occurred to the Bentgrass  makes this product unusable for me going forward.  This is the exact opposite of how this product has been marketed.

I believe a big factor in using this product in Colorado was overlooked and or underestimated.  Xonerate works by inhibiting Photosynthesis within the plant (specifically Poa Annua)  and is absorbed through both  the leaf and through the root system. The combination of  low humidity and significantly higher intensity of sun rays appear to effect how the product is absorbed by the non target species (Bentgrass).  More research and testing needs to be done on this matter.

We as Golf Course Superintendents are always looking for products to improve the overall health and playability of the golf course and it's times like this that some of these latest and greatest product make matters worse. If there are changes to application protocols manufacturers need to tell someone in a proactive manner , don't keep this information internally let the sales reps know so they can effectively communicate to the end user.

So if your a Golf Course Superintendent in Colorado considering using Xonerate, I would think long and hard before taking that first step because you will get burned. Just ask me.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Poa Annua Under Fire



 Over the years we have used many different products to try and control Poa Annua, each with varying degrees of success. 

Currently we are testing a newly labeled product called Xonerate for Poa Annua control.  We began our testing on several areas of the golf course including #11 first fairway, 1/2 of #11 green, North chipping and nursery greens and fairways.

After closely following the application protocols over the last six weeks visual disruption is taking place on some of the turf areas.  Most notably the first fairway on hole #11 is showing signs of both Poa Annua stress as well as some Bentgrass stress.  I am happy about the Poa being under stress, not so much with the Bent.  Most of the damage to the Bent is in the form of leaf tip burn and or stress.  The crown of the plant still looks healthly and active.  Over the next several weeks the plant should push out new leaf material and the visual disruption will recede.

It is exciting to see new products come to the market, but if they are not safe on the desired plant species then it really doesn't help my overall battle against Poa Annua.

To learn more about the product Xonerate Here

Thursday, May 10, 2012

On Course Education



This morning we had our annual golf course tour with the Green Committee and Golf Committee.  We had great weather and many great questions were asked by the committee members.

The course tour allows for open communication about things good and bad on the golf course and also helps to serve as a vital conduit of information to the general membership that are not involved at the committee level.  The members got to see first hand how the golf course is prepared for daily play they witnessed things such as setup,mowing, rolling and how Stimpmeter readings are taken.

After the meeting I had several members thank me for this inside view into what we do on a daily basis and the challenges we face.  I look forward to these on course tours as I feel they are far more productive than sitting in a Boardroom trying to explain things.  Nothings works better than to allow people to touch and feel out on on the golf course. 

Friday, May 4, 2012

Annual Flower Prep

With another golf season upon us we are inching closer to planting our annual flowers. We will still have to wait another couple weeks before we can safely plant due to frost still being likely to occur. After that point in time we begin to install the flowers which are tentatively scheduled for the third week of May.

In efforts to make the installation go more smoothly the beds will be prepped well in advance of the actual planting. The prep involves, amending the soil, tilling, weeding and pre-plant fertilizer being added. The logo bed will also be done slightly different than last year from an installation standpoint. Last year was the first time we have done this bed and the installation was tedious due to numerous measurements being taken to ensure the logo coming out right.

This year a frame has been constructed and will be placed permanently in the bed to act as a template for the specific areas of planting to create the logo. This will be a huge time saver from an installation standpoint and also keep the logo visible to all during the off season when flowers are not present.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Bunker Renovations

For the last several weeks we have been working on some of our more problematic bunkers that have had major sand and drainage system contamination.  As a result of this many of our bunkers no longer perform from a playability and drainage stand point.

 Here is a great video from the USGA that show some of our bunker issues.

The issue stems from the last three summers of torrential rains that have mixed soil and clay particles with the bunker sand effectively closing all pore space necessary for drainage. As a result the bunkers now hold water and the sand stays wet throughout the day.  This is problematic from a playability standpoint because the bunkers play like there is no sand in them, when in actuality there is plenty.  Unfortunately the sand is so contaminated  it no longer function in all regards.

The solution for this problem is to completely remove the sand and install new drainage before re-installing the new sand. Going one step further we will be lining the bunkers with a product called Klingstone. This product is a liquid polymer that is applied to the bunker subsurface that solidifies in 24 hours into a hard impermeable surface. This newly formed liner will help minimize any future sand contamination with the subsurface soil.

New Drainge Being Installed


The end result will be a better performing longer lasting bunker that should play the same today as it does in five years. We will be installing the newer liner technology to ten of our worst bunkers this year and use this as a full scale test as to future bunker renovation solutions. For more information about Klingstone and to watch an installation video go to there website Here

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Another One In The Books

The last three days were spent aerifing the course to prepare it form the upcoming season.  We completed aerification of greens, tees and fairways.  In addition to that we handled more than 700 tons of sand that was applied to the freshly punched turf.  Needless to say it is a monumental task moving that much material around the golf course.

This year we used a Verti-Drain deep tine aerifer on greens  that was set at a depth of 9" with 1/4" solid times. At first glance the greens appear as if they were not aerified but that is not the case.  The surface impact appears minimal but a deep fracturing of the soil has taken place now allowing free movement of oxygen and water into the rootzone. The end result will be a deeper healthier root system of the plant.

The fairways have been aerified for a total of three times in the last four weeks.  We took the liberty of "sneaking in" a couple of punches on the fairways back in March with the weather cooperating with us. These multiple aerifications will greatly help us control our surface firmness and allow numerous channels to be filled with sand.  Over the course of the three fairway aerifications 4.5 million holes per acre  were punched and 600 tons of sand was applied to the fairways alone.

Right now the fairways more closely resemble bunkers than anything else,  but over the next week the grass will once again push through and start help the sand to work it's way down.  The next several mowings will be extremely rough on the equipment  but the end result is all that matters.


Tuesday, April 3, 2012

A Little Rough In The Rough

After a long winter with an extended snow cover many of the northern exposure rough areas took it in the shorts as far as damage goes. These areas were effected by both Snow Mold and Vole damage. The good news is that it is not a lost cause and nothing that cannot be repaired. Most of the damage appears to be superficial and with a little work on our part these areas will come back good as new.

The main thing we will be doing is to rake out the matted areas and re-introduce sunlight and oxygen. These areas will either be hand raked out or drug with a steel mat to accomplish this task. This alone will initiate the plant to produce new leaves and stems to repair the damage.

                                                                       Vole Damage

                                                                       Dragging Rough
                                                                       Snow Mold Damage